The Battalion. (College Station, Tex.) 1893-current, March 19, 1985, Image 1

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Vol. 80 No. 114 GSPS 045360 12 pages
College Station, Texas
Tuesday, March 19,1985
ated Press
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Judge CurtSteip
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iday hearing,
in contempt
Texas student lobby
supports moderate
hikes in state tuition
Associated Press
AUSTIN (AP) — The Texas Stu
dent Lobby said Monday it would
support a moderate increase in col
lege tuition — but not a 1100 per
cent increase.
“Students have been reasonable
about tuition this session because of
the state’s financial situation,” said
Diane Friday, a director of the stu
dent group. “We know a tuition in
crease is going to have to come of
this session.”
Friday said a bill introduced by
Sen. Grant Jones, D-Abilene, would
increase tuition at state colleges and
universities from $4 per semester
hour to $48 beginning in the fall.
Non-resident students’ tuition
jyould jump from $40 to $60 per se
mester hour starting in the 1986 fall
semester, she said.
Jones’ bill has not been set for a
public hearing.
In the bill, medical and dental stu
dents would see their tuition go
from $400 to $1,200 this fall and
$1,400 in 1986. Non-resident medi
cal and dental students’ $1,200 fee
would climb to $3,600 this fall and
$4,200 in 1986.
Foreign students’ tuition would
also jump from $40 per semester
hour to $80 in 1985 and $100 in
The student group has already
endorsed a tuition increase bill by
Rep. Wilhelmina Delco, D-Austin,
which raises tuition from $4 to $8 in
1985, $12 in 1986 and then by $2
increments until 1990.
The House Higher Education
Committee last week approved Del-
co’s bill, which also sets aside 25 per
cent of the tuition fees for financial
aid. Jones’ bill allots 9 percent.
Friday said students are already
facing a tough time making ends
meet by paying rent, food, clothes,
transportation, books, utilities, other
students fees and tuition.
Catherine Mauzy, another direc
tor of the Texas Student Lobby, said
students have been working with the
Legislature to come up with a fair
and eouitable tuition plan.
Witn the state facing a $1 billion
shortfall, lawmakers are out to in
crease tuition to raise money.
Mauzy said she is questioning
whether any kind of tuition increase
is needed after hearing about a re
port from State Comptroller Bob
Bullock. Bullock says state colleges
and universities made $3.4 billion in
the last two years from library fines
to football tickets.
If that’s the case, some of that
money should go for student finan
cial aid programs, she said.
Need A Ride?
Hal Spiegel, a senior recreation and parks
major, helps show students in Recreation
and Parks 340, Recreation for Special Pop
ulations, campus hazards to handicapped
students like himself. Class members took
turns in wheelchairs and endured the rigors
of the ramps of Kyle Field, the heavy doors
of Rudder Tower, and the library ramps.
Reagan, Mulroney
wrap up summit
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X missile
Committee recommends approval of funding
“A vote
Feat For
the dangerous thing, not
Gold water.
Associated Press
Amid intensive personal
lobbying by President Rea
gan, the Republican-led
Senate Armed Services
Committee voted 11-6
Monday to recommend
freeing $1.5 billion to <
build and install 21 addi
tional MX missiles in underground silos in Wyoming
and Nebraska.
Committee Chairman Barry Coldwater of Arizona
predicted an extremely close vote Tuesday when the
full Senate decides whether to approve the next stage
in Reagan's plan to add a total of 100 MXs to the na
tion’s nuclear arsenal.
Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole, R-Kan., said “I
am confident” the MX will be approved.
Coldwater, who had previously said he would op
pose tlie MX, voted for it Monday.
“A vote against it would indicate a defeat for the
president,” he said. “That would be the dangerous
thing, not the loss of the missile.”
Despite the defeat for MX foes in the committee,
they pledged a tough fight
on the Senate floor Tues
day and again Thursday,
when a second vote is
Sen. Gary Hart, D-
Colo., who conducted an
anti-MX filibuster almost
singlehandedly in 1983,
said the MX is “destabiliz
ing, a war-fighting weapon. It is designed for a first
An Associated Press survey showed 44 senators fa
voring the MX, with 43 opposed and 13 still undecided.
If the Senate gives its approval, another dual set of
votes is scheduled in the Democrat-controlled House
next week. ,
In the Senate committee vote, six Democrats voted
against the MX: Hart, James Exon of Nebraska, Ed
ward Kennedy of Massachusetts, John Glenn of Ohio,
Jeff Bingaman of New Mexico and Carl Levin of Michi
Senate Minority Leader Robert Byrd, D-W.Va., said
through an aide that he has made up his mind, but
would not disclose the decision.
Associated Press
QUEBEC — President Reagan
ended a friendly summit meeting in
Canada on Monday and left for
home to renew the administration’s
“full-court press” for money to con
tinue production of the MX missile.
During 90 minutes of talks, Rea
gan reportedly told Canadian Prime
Minister Brian Mulroney he believes
a U.S.-Soviet summit “would be use
ful” now that Mikhail Gorbachev has
become leader of the Soviet Union.
A U.S. official, briefing reporters
on the Quebec talks only on condi
tion he not be identified, said Rea
gan “felt if Mr. Gorbachev is ready,
they could have a real, substantive
meeting at this point.”
But in a luncheon speech, Reagan
kept up his tough anti-Soviet line,
renewing charges that the Soviets vi
olated the Yalta accord calling for
free elections in Europe after World
War II; the Geneva convention ban
ning use of-chemical weapons; the
anti-ballistic missile treaty; and the
Helsinki agreement to respect hu
man rights.
“Let us always remain idealists but
never blind to history,” Reagan said,
offering to talk with the Soviets on a
variety of issues, from arms control
to human rights to U.S.-Soviet bilat
eral issues.
At the conclusion of their 24-hour
“Shamrock Summit,” Reagan and
Mulroney signed agreements to
modernize the North American air
defense system and work toward
further relaxation of trade barriers
between the two trading partners
and neighbors.
They also ratified a new treaty to
end years of controversy between
the two nations’ Pacific salmon fish
ing industries and signed a treaty for
mutual law enforcement assistance.
In a speech to federal and provin
cial leaders, Reagan told Canada’s
new Conservative leader, “I’m confi
dent there isn’t an area where you
and I cannot reach an agreement for
the good of our two countries.”
Mulroney toasted Reagan, saying
the summit “marks a new era in rela
tions between Canada and the
United States.”
At the outset of their two days of
talks, Reagan and Mulroney defused
the one explosive issue dividing their
two governments by appointing spe
cial envoys to study the problem of
acid rain pollution and report back
to them within a year.
Presidential spokesman Larry
Speakes said that Reagan would turn
his attention to the Senate’s “make-
or-break vote” today on the future
of the MX intercontinental missile.
Bullock says
tuition hike
not needed
Associated Press
AUSTIN — State colleges and
universities have a $3.4 billion
“bowl of gravy” that only they can
spend, plus tne state money they
want from the Legislature, Com
ptroller Bob Bullock said Mon
Bullock urged state budget
writers to take a close look at the
local funds held by the 48 state
colleges, universities and institu
tions before raising college tu
ition or thinking about new taxes.
“These schools have their
noses in a $3 billion bowl of gravy
which is in their local bank ac
counts and which the Legislature
never sees,” Bullock said in a
speech to the Texas Daily News
paper Association.
The comptroller added: “I was
for a tuition increase until I got
into this, but I was wrong.”
A college tuition increase pro
posal is to be debated by the
House today.
Later, Gov. Mark White, who
See Bullock, page 4
Mars colonization envisioned by scientists
Editor’s note: 1'his is the second
pan of a two-part series focusing on
some scientist's view of the future of
And from the rockets ran men
with hammers in their hands to beat
the strange world into a shape that
was familiar to the eye, to bludgeon
away all the strangeness... .
“The Martian Chronicles, ”
by Ray Bradbury
The technology needed to build
and support a manned base on Mars
is not as futuristic as it seems, say two
former NASA officials now em
ployed at Texas A&M.
“The shape of the structures that
we’re talking about could be quite fa
miliar; yet, the method of construc
tion may be considerably different,”
said Dr. Duwayne Anderson, asso
ciate provost of research at A&M.
Oran Nicks, director of the Space
Research Center at A&M, said that
because of the lower gravity on Mars
(about 60 percent of Earth’s), lighter
materials can be used in construction
without reducing the strength of the
Anderson said honeycombed and
composite materials would be ideal
for low gravity construction because
of their stiffness and strength.
At this time Nicks said it’s hard to
tell if a base on Mars might be built
like a shopping mall or be built un
der the protection of a huge dome.
“It’s probably going to be a combi
nation of all these things,” Nicks
The Martian environment, with
its thin atmosphere composed pri
marily of carbon dioxide and sub
zero temperatures, is not as hostile
as many would think, Nicks said.
Humans have overcome some of
the most hostile environments here
on Earth with inventions such as the
jet liner and submarine, he said.
In contrast to these inventions
which reproduce the Earth’s envi
ronment, Nicks said, the future
space colonies will not have to re
create Earth conditions.
“To assume that people have to
have a gravity of one G to be satis
fied is probably wrong,” he said.
“We may just adapt to the lower
gravity and love it.”
One finding that supports this
theory was the discovery made by
A&M scientists and engineers that
plants only need the minimum air
pressure exerted by carbon dioxide
to survive. This type of atmosphere
is found on Mars.
Anderson said that humans, like
plants, are able to live in a lower-
pressured atmosphere.
Studies at A&M’s Hyperbaric La-
bratory have shown that humans can
live with a pressure of five pounds-
per-square-inch without any ill ef
fects, Anderson said.
The atmospheric pressure, or the
force exerted by the weight of gases,
on Earth is about 15 pounds-per-
square-inch, he said.
“On Mars, it is very likely we
would not pressurize the living
spaces to one full Earth atmosphe
re,” he said. “We would live in a re
duced atmosphere of probably eight
In addition to the pressure stud
ies, the Hyperbaric Labratory has
derived a mixture of hydrogen and
oxygen gases which is not combusti
ble and which is suitable for humans
to breath.
Dr. William Fife, professor emeri
tus of biology, director of the project
said the new mixture is composed of
97 percent hydrogen to three per
cent oxygen.
This combination is created by se
parating the hydrogen and oxygen
from water using an electrolysis
technique invented by Fife, and then
by re-combining the elements into
gaseous form, he said.
Anderson said with the presence
of water on Mars, Fife’s process
could prove very useful in coloniza
tion planning, Anderson said.
Fife, however, said there is one
problem with using this mixture on
Mars as atmosphere.
The hydrogen-oxygen combina
tion requires an atmospheric pres
sure of about 95.5 pounds-per-
square-inch, Fife said. Mars’ atmo
spheric pressure is less than 0.15
One alternative Fife suggested
would be to reverse the mixture per
centages to yield an oxygen-satu
rated atmosphere for the low-pres-
sured community.
Anderson said Fife’s electrolysis
process could be beneficial to the
Mars mission in another way.
At Texas A&M’s Hydrogen Re
search Center, work is being done
using pure hydrogen in fuel cells as
a more efficient energy source, An
derson said.
An abundant energy source is es
sential for any type oi colonization
of space, he said. T he first settlers of
Mars will have access to several en
ergy possibilities, including the hy
drogen fuel cells.
“When we go to the moon or Mars
and start a new world, so to speak,
that energy limitation is one we can
deal with, much better that our fore
fathers,” Nicks said. “That will make
a tremendous difference in the abil
ity to move more quickly into devel
oping these places.”
Construction, life-support systems
and energy needs are just a few of
the problems faced by the research
ers of space colonization.
Nicks said the Space Research
Center provides an opportunity to
bring the scientific talent at A&M to
gether to focus on the problems of
space exploration.
“The reality of the place as a
whole, uncontaminated world sitting
there with no one messing with it
and then the opportunity to go there
and consciously develop it, is just a
fascinating idea,” Nicks said.